Make your own free website on Tripod.com

 

THE SOUTHWEST DESERT CULTURES:

 

 

This region was the home of several desert Indian tribes and traditions, the most notable being the Mogollon, Hohokam, Anasazi and Athapascan. This region is unique in many ways for significant remains of primitive standing architecture, fine painted ceramics and other interesting artefacts. Here Mexican agricultural traits were grafted onto the indigenous desert pathways. An ancient variety of corn was grown here and dates back to 3000 BC. and the indications are that a sedentary, semi-nomadic seasonal existence emerged sometime around 2,000 years ago dependent on hunting and agricultural resources.

 

HISTORICAL EVENTS IN THE SOUTHWEST REGION

DATE: MAIN EVENTS:

200 BC. MOGOLLON CULTURE: develops in Mogollon Mts.- small villages made of "pit houses" - market gardening. Expansion of Mongollon culture into Hohokam & Anasazi regions.

300 AD. Expansion of Mongollon culture into Hohokam & Anasazi regions.

500 - 700 AD. Crop failures create depression & partial emigration of Anasazi culture to Hohokam regions forms SINAGUA culture.

700 AD. Depression ends with strong ANASAZI influence and some mingling with Hohokam bands in the South.

900 AD. "Mimbres" pottery styles develop in SW New Mexico.

1000 AD. Trend favours surface dwellings in contrast to pits.

1100 AD. Droughts force contraction of Mogollon culture with influx from Athapascan culture. More emigrations.

1250 AD. Re-establishment of sites.

1350 AD. Abandonment of sites.

1600 AD. Historical ZUNI culture.

HISTORICAL EVENTS IN THE THE WESTERN DESERTS:(HOHOKAM & SINAGUA CULTURES)

DATE: MAIN EVENTS:

300 BC. HOHOKAM Culture develops in S. Arizona desert. Sedentary lifestyles in shallow pit houses based on irrigation agriculture.

500 AD. SINAGUA Culture develops in central Arizona - an amalgam of Mogollon & Anasazi migrants.

600 AD. Mogollon influences & Mexican traits emerge - ball-courts & platform mounds become prominent.

1000 AD. Chiefdoms emerge.

1040 - 1076 AD. Sunset Crater erupts in Sinagua area, later emigrations.

1100 AD. Mogollon Immigration while Sinagua return to C. Arizona.

1200 AD. Anasazi Immigration.

1300 AD. Climax of Sinagua culture - successful farming on volcanic soils, while later crop failures cause reduction & migration south to form Salado culture who co-exist with Hohokam people.

1450 AD. Crop failures and influx of Athapascan tribes cause the decline of Salado & Hohokam race - collapse of irrigation systems & reversion to tribal organisation.

1600 AD. Historical Pima & Papago.

1600 AD. Father Kino, a Jesuit missionary, visits Hohokam region and notes crop irrigation system & towns in disrepair.

HISTORICAL EVENTS IN THE ANASAZI CULTURES

DATE: MAIN EVENTS:

500 - 100 BC. San Jose Culture(A variant of Desert Culture) flourishes in upper Colorado * Upper Rio Grande area.

100 BC. ANASAZI CULTURE (basketwork period) develops in 4 areas: Utah, Colorado, Arizona & New Mexico based on agriculture, hunting & gathering.

400 AD. Modified basketwork period begins, deeper pit houses and smoke-holes become entrances, first appearance of pottery.

550 AD. 650 AD. MOGOLLON influences. First Great Kivas (20 meters dia.)

700 AD. First Pueblo Period begins, surface houses while pottery is influenced by Mogollon & Hohokam styles & fired using indigenous Anasazi techniques.

950 AD. Chaco Canyon settlements form chiefdoms in Pueblo Bonito & Cliff Palace on the Mesa Verde Tower constructions.

1050 AD. Half-villages on Mesa Verde are cliff dwellings - Cliff Palace with 200 rooms, & 23 Kivas for over 400 people.

1276 - 99 AD. Droughts & influx of Athapascan tribes reduces Anasazi culture to Little Colorado River & Upper Rio Grande areas

1540 - 42 AD. Coronados’ Expedition through the SW opens the Rio Grandegh to Spanish colonisation.

1600 - Historical Hopi & Rio Grande Pueblos.

1680 Indians rebel and expel Spanish.

1692 AD. Spanish reassert control of region.

HISTORICAL EVENTS IN THE ATHAPASCANS CULTURE:

DATE: MAIN EVENTS:

825 AD. Ancestral Apache bands break from northern Athapascan groups and migrate south.

1025 AD. Ancestral Navajo bands follow Apache.

1200 AD. Apache & Navajo raid settlements in SW and warfare accelerates.

1600 AD. Historical Apache & Navajo Groups.

HISTORICAL EVENTS IN THE CALIFORNIA CULTURES:

DATE: MAIN EVENTS:

5000 BC. Desert culture at Lake Mojave & San Dieguito sites with food grinders in the south. La Jolla culture develops but marine animals not fully exploited.

2000 BC. Influx of round-headed Penutian speaking peoples with bow & arrow into Hokaltecan-speaking areas, acorns are processed using hopper/mortar devices. While coastal regions evolve round maritime subsistence patterns.

300 AD. Canalino culture develops around S. California based on maritime resources, game & birds. Circular houses in villages & semi-subterranean sweat houses clustered in valley bottoms near Santa Barbara coast.

1600 AD. Historical Chumash evolve out of Canalino culture, plank boats appear and Pomo tribes develop elaborate coiled basketwork in Central California.

 

HISTORICAL EVENTS IN THE THE NW COASTAL PLATEAU:

DATE: MAIN EVENTS:

6000 BC. Salmon hunts on the Columbia river cease & Upper Columbia tribes revert to Desert Culture subsistence.

5000 BC. Athapascan influences from North on Fraser River.

1000 BC. Early evidence of Salish culture on coast supported by marine economy - toggled harpoons. Ancestral Tsimshian arrive on lower Skeena river.

0000 AD. Great increase in the use of heavy wood-working tools in Fraser Delta, cedar-logs carved for use in housing & canoes.

500 AD. First Burial mounds appear along with emphasis on wealth & social stratification.

1265 AD. Cascade landslide at Celilo falls allows salmon to migrate upstream for first time in 7,000 years. Shahaptin speaking people adapt to salmon fishing.